It was our species, Homo sapiens, ironically Latin for ‘wise man’, which all by itself created terror and warfare.
Long, long ago in the great grasslands which lie east of the Ural Mountains, which we know today as the Siberian Plain, a human family community lived in trust with all nature. They comprised about 30 adults and a similar number of children They survived by following the great herds of caribou for these animals provided meat, fat (for lamps), bone (for needles and hand tools), hides (for tents and clothing) and milk. In fact no part of the animal was wasted.
The caribou herds migrated in great circles about the grasslands, heading north in summertime and south in wintertime. The family community followed, packing up their tents just like nomads still do in a few parts or Mongolia.
Also living within the great embracing trust were wolves and eagles, along with many smaller animals such as hares, marmots and tasty birds (ducks, quail, grouse, pigeon). Most were part of this great tapestry of migration for the caribou provided a means of life to all but the grass eating animals and the birds. During summer hares, marmots and birds were good eating and provided useful fur and feathers to the human family community.
One year brought a deeper winter than usual. By the time of the very short days around winter solstice the human community was almost imprisoned by masses of snow. Food stores were run down and the community started to feel hunger.
The stronger men went out foraging but returned empty handed and exhausted from the effort of moving through the snow.
One day one of the men came upon a frozen steam and on the other side was a wolf with a caribou . Alone she was struggling to drag the carcase back to her pack. In surprise the man yelled and noticed that this frightened the wolf who backed away. Curious the man did it again, this time waving his arms and moving toward the stream. The wolf backed further away. Eventually the man got to the carcase, lifted it to is shoulders and started back to his camp.
But this was the wolf's legitimate catch and she was not going to just give up. She, and eventually others of her pack, trailed the man.
That night there was celebration as everyone ate meat and about the fire the man told the story of how he frightened the she-wolf.
The young men heard this story and in the days that followed they began to experiment with the wolves which were about the camp still in search of their legitimate food. Each night the stories grew bolder and since language is entwined with emotion a strange new feeling began to be sensed.
Gradually warmth returned, movement became easier and the young men pursued their new sport. Then one day a young hunter was out with the kitchen implement of bow and arrow (for shooting hares and birds) and he came upon a wolf. Emboldened by the escalating stories he felt a darkness descend upon him as he loaded an arrow and shot the wolf; taking 3 arrows to complete the kill. In this moment the young hunter turned a kitchen utensil into a weapon and that act would come to terrorise and haunt mankind thenceforth.
The coherence of trust was broken!
About the fire the hunter told and retold his story as the community tried to take in this new emotion. Babies absorbed this emotion by osmosis as did the younger children and the hunter glowed with his new celebrity.
Thus the men began to patrol the herd and soon learned that as they killed the wolf the spring calving drop was greater. Then they made another discovery. To make the task easier the men killed most of the males calves at birth; this made for a quieter and easier herding.
When trust is broken, control arises and this is what the family community were now learning to exercise over the herd. And control is enforced by killing.
It did not take long for the human community to master control of the herd. Really there were only two tasks, driving off the wolf and killing the bull calves.
Thus herd numbers grew and grazing land was exhausted more quickly. The traditional annual migration required greater mobility; and more pasture. This led to a westward drift in the north-south cycle.
All the while the community was becoming habituated to the new emotioning. And as emotion is entwined with language speech was subtly shifting, growing more callous and careless about what was before held sacred.
Eventually this westward drift brought the community into direct contact with another human group. What would have once been a celebration and time of barter and marriage arrangement now became a slaughter. The men in the new group were murdered, and the women raped which forced them to merge into the growing tribe where offspring would know no other origin. These were the simple, barbaric means learned in controlling the great herds and this 'might is right' became embedded in the partriarchal conciuosness. And it is important to note that it was men and women together who constructed and fortified this power based adaptation.
The human community had become a tribe treating the innocent others they came upon with the same management controls as they used on the herd. And thus their numbers grew. (An excellent read on the tribalism which resulted may be found in Riane Eisler's classic "The Chalice and The Blade" 1987 Harper One).
In "Genghis Khan", Paul Ratchnevsky writes: "In 1202 after the defeat of the Tartars Genghis Ka'an carried out a complete eradication of the Tartar males. The women and children were made slaves and divided among the warriors. Temuchin took for himself the sisters Yisugan and Yisuin." (Blackwell Pub. 1991) This illustrates that in the period between breaking the coherence of trust and the Mongol Conquest these practices had become set.
It is highly doubtful that this original tribe will be exactly identified. Whether they were the original Turkic and Mongol-Tungusic seems irrelevant. What matters is that as they moved westward they learned the aggressive attitudes and warrior movements which eventually allowed these original barbarians to imposed themselves on the peaceful, matristic or partnership cultures of Old Europe replacing them with patriarchy. They came into Western Europe and into the Mediterranean in 3 great waves known as the Kurgan invasions. It is probable that the final invasion gave rise to what we recognise as the Dorians who included the isolationist military state of Lacedaemon or Sparta. Here, the warlike movements, tools and organisation of war, learned during the Bronze Age in Northern Europe, were refined and deified.
Once Tyrannical Governership allowed for the rise of the first Greek City States (which in turn allowed the develpment of writing) then the stage was set for a new civilisation to emerge, ours, Western Civilisation and it was totally patriarchal.
Violence had replaced the co -operative peacefulness which had been with the hominid lineage for about 5 million years.
To this day the pattern of killing males over the age of 12 and rape remain a feature of tribal warfare. And a patriarchal papacy remains highly controlling in the matter of conception and this even in the face of a population explosion.
Thus what began with misappropriation gave rise to control; control was enforced by killing and this is how the great tribes grew.
This story was told to me by Humberto Maturana.